Web Seminar Questions

Questions to Chris Pugh

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Do other Salmonella vaccines use the IRP technology?

The only Salmonella vaccines for poultry on the market in Europe with IRP technology are Nobilis Salenvac and Nobilis Salenvac T.

An evolutionary question for Chris Pugh: Why do you think bacteria have evolved siderophores to actually be synthesized and then physically released from the cell to the surrounding environment capture Fe? Doesn't this pose a high risk that the Fe-siderophore complex will not contact the cell's own IRP as a receptor and the whole enterprise will be for naught?

The iron-sequestering activities of the siderophores occur in the localized environment of the bacterial cells in the animal. The cells will not be growing in isolation from each other and will occur as a local "colony", each cell not necessarily utilising it's own siderophores, but any present in the surrounding environment.

Do bacteria substitute iron with something like manganese for key biochemical processes? If so, would vaccines against IRP's work for substitute metal protein siderophore receptors?

Bacteria are capable of growing under many different environmental stresses and in the absence of a specific nutrient may be able to use an alternative metabolic pathway to enable replication. The conditions under which the IRP vaccines are produced may also result in an environment deficient in other metal ions and, although manganese has been found to play a role in the virulence of Salmonella in some circumstances, the importance of other metal siderophore receptors is still a subject of research.

At what point must you vaccinate with an IRP technology Salmonella vaccine?

The recommended vaccination schedule for Salenvac and Salenvac T should be followed.